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The Amphibians, Reptiles, and Turtles of California

Brown, Philip. 1997. A Field Guide to Snakes of California Houston, TX: Gulf Publishing Company. 216 pp. 
Lemm, Jeffrey M. 2006. Field Guide to Amphibians and Reptiles of the San Diego Region Berkeley: University of California Press. 312 pp
Stebbins, Robert C. 1972. California Amphibians and Reptiles Berkeley: University of California Press. 152 pp.

Amphibia Gray, 1825 - Amphibians
Anura Fischer von Waldheim, 1813 - Frogs
Bufonidae Gray, 1825 - True Toads
Anaxyrus Tschudi, 1845 - North American Toads
A. boreas (Baird & Girard, 1852) - Western Toad
A. californicus (Camp, 1915) - Arroyo Toad
A. canorus (Camp, 1916) - Yosemite Toad
A. cognatus (Say in James, 1822) - Great Plains Toad
A. exsul (Myers, 1942) - Black Toad
A. punctatus (Baird & Girard, 1852) - Red-spotted Toad
A. woodhousii (Girard, 1854) - Woodhouse's Toad
Incilius Cope, 1863 - Central American Toads
I. alvarius (Girard, 1859) - Sonoran Desert Toad
  
Hylidae Rafinesque, 1815 - Treefrogs
Pseudacris Fitzinger, 1843 - Chorus Frogs
P. cadaverina (Cope, 1866) - California Treefrog
P. hypochondriaca (Hallowell, 1854) - Baja California Treefrog
P. regilla (Baird & Girard, 1852) - Pacific Treefrog
P. sierra (Jameson, Mackey & Richmond, 1966) - Sierran Treefrog
  
Leiopelmatidae Mivart, 1869 - Tail-wagging Frogs
Ascaphus Stejneger, 1899 - Tailed Frogs
A. truei Stejneger, 1899 - Coastal Tailed Frog
  
Ranidae Rafinesque, 1814 - True Frogs
Lithobates Ftizinger, 1843 - American Water Frogs
L. berlandieri (Baird, 1859) - Rio Grande Leopard Frog
L. catesbeianus (Shaw, 1802) - American Bullfrog
L. pipiens (Schreber, 1782) - Northern Leopard Frog
L. sphenocephalus (Cope, 1886) - Southern Leopard Frog
L. yavapaiensis (Platz & Frost, 1984) - Lowland Leopard Frog
Rana Linnaeus, 1758 - Brown Frogs
R. aurora Baird & Girard, 1852 - Northern Red-legged Frog
R. boylii Baird, 1854 - Foothill Yellow-legged Frog
R. cascadae Slater, 1939 - Cascades Frog
R. draytonii Baird & Girard, 1852 - California Red-legged Frog
R. luteiventris Thompson, 1913 - Columbia Spotted Frog
R. muscosa Camp, 1917 - Southern Mountain Yellow-legged Frog
R. pretiosa Baird & Girard, 1853 - Oregon Spotted Frog
R. sierrae Camp, 1917 - Sierra Nevada Yellow-legged Frog
  
Scaphiopodidae Cope, 1865 - North American Spadefoots
Scaphiopus Holbrook, 1836 - North American Spadefoots
S. couchii Baird, 1854 - Couch's Spadefoot
Spea Cope, 1866 - Western Spadefoots
S. hammondii (Baird, 1859 “1857”) - Western Spadefoot
S. intermontana (Cope, 1883) - Great Basin Spadefoot
  
Caudata Scopoli, 1777 - Salamanders
Ambystomatidae Gray, 1850 - Mole Salamanders
Ambystoma Tschudi, 1838 - Mole Salamanders
A. californiense Gray, 1853 - California Tiger Salamander
A. gracile (Baird, 1857) - Northwestern Salamander
A. macrodactylum Baird, 1849 - Long-toed Salamander
A. mavortium Baird, 1850 “1849” - Western Tiger Salamander
Dicamptodon Strauch, 1870 - Pacific Giant Salamanders
D. ensatus (Eschscholtz, 1833) - California Giant Salamander
D. tenebrosus (Baird & Girard, 1852) - Coastal Giant Salamander
  
Plethodontidae Gray, 1850 - Lungless Salamanders
Aneides Baird, 1849 - Climbing Salamanders
A. ferreus Cope, 1869 - Clouded Salamander
A. flavipunctatus (Strauch, 1870) - Black Salamander
A. lugubris (Hallowell, 1849) - Arboreal Salamander
A. vagrans (Wake & Jackman, 1999) - Wandering Salamander
Batrachoseps Bonaparte, 1841 - Slender Salamanders
B. altasierrae Jockush, Martinez-Solano, Hansen, and Wake, 2012 - Greenhorn Mountains Slender Salamander
B. attenuatus (Eschscholtz, 1833) - California Slender Salamander
B. bramei Jockush, Martinez-Solano, Hansen, and Wake, 2012 - Fairview Slender Salamander
B. campi Marlow, Brode & Wake, 1979 - Inyo Mountains Salamander
B. diabolicus Jockusch, Wake & Yanev, 1998 - Hell Hollow Slender Salamander
B. gabrieli Wake, 1996 - San Gabriel Mountains Slender Salamander
B. gavilanensis Jockusch, Yanev & Wake, 2001 - Gabilan Mountains Slender Salamander
B. gregarius Jockusch, Wake & Yanev 1998 - Gregarious Slender Salamander
B. incognitus Jockusch, Yanev & Wake, 2001 - San Simeon Slender Salamander
B. kawia Jockusch, Wake & Yanev, 1998 - Sequoia Slender Salamander
B. luciae Jockusch, Yanev & Wake, 2001 - Santa Lucia Mountains Slender Salamander
B. major Camp, 1915 - Southern California Slender Salamander
B. minor Jockusch, Yanev & Wake, 2001 - Lesser Slender Salamander
B. nigriventris Cope, 1869 - Black-bellied Slender Salamander
B. pacificus (Cope, 1865) - Channel Islands Slender Salamander
B. regius Jockusch, Wake & Yanev, 1998 - Kings River Slender Salamander
B. relictus Brame & Murray, 1968 - Relictual Slender Salamander
B. robustus Wake, Yanev, and Hansen, 2002 - Kern Plateau Salamander
B. simatus Brame & Murray, 1968 - Kern Canyon Slender Salamander
B. stebbinsi Brame & Murray, 1968 - Tehachapi Slender Salamander
Ensatina Gray, 1850 - Ensatinas
E. eschscholtzii Gray, 1850 - Ensatina
E. e. klauberi Dunn, 1929 - Large-blotched Ensatina
Hydromantes Gistel, 1848 - Web-toed Salamanders
H. brunus Gorman, 1954 - Limestone Salamander
H. platycephalus (Camp, 1916) - Mount Lyell Salamander
H. shastae Gorman & Camp, 1953 - Shasta Salamander
Plethodon Tschudi, 1838 - Woodland Salamanders
P. asupak Mead, Clayton, Nauman, Olson, & Pfrender, 2005 - Scott Bar Salamander
P. dunni Bishop, 1934 - Dunn's Salamander
P. elongatus Van Denburgh, 1916 - Del Norte Salamander
P. stormi Highton & Brame, 1965 - Siskiyou Mountains Salamander
  
Rhyacotritonidae Tihen, 1958 - Torrent Salamanders
Rhyacotriton Dunn, 1920 - Torrent Salamanders
R. variegatus Stebbins & Lowe, 1951 - Southern Torrent Salamander
  
Salamandridae Goldfuss, 1820 - Newts
Taricha Gray, 1850 - Pacific Newts
T. granulosa (Skilton, 1849) - Rough-skinned Newt
T. rivularis (Twitty, 1935) - Red-bellied Newt
T. sierrae (Twitty, 1942) - Sierra Newt
T. torosa (Rathke, 1833) - California Newt
  
Reptilia Laurenti, 1768 - Reptiles
Cryptodira Cope, 1868 - Turtles
Cheloniidae Oppel, 1811 - Sea Turtlesclick
Caretta Rafinesque, 1814 - Loggerhead Sea Turtles
C. caretta (Linnaeus, 1758) - Loggerhead Sea Turtle
Chelonia Brongniart, 1800 - Green Sea Turtles
C. mydas (Linnaeus, 1758) - Green Sea Turtle
Eretmochelys Fitzinger, 1843 - Hawksbill Sea Turtles
E. imbricata (Linnaeus, 1766) - Hawksbill Sea Turtle
Lepidochelys Fitzinger, 1843 - Ridley Sea Turtles
L. olivacea (Eschscholtz, 1829) - Olive Ridley Sea Turtle
  
Chelydridae Gray, 1870ef=" - Snapping Turtles
Chelydra Schweigger, 1812 - Snapping Turtles
C. serpentina (Linnaeus, 1758) - Snapping Turtle
  
Dermochelyidae Fitzinger, 1843 - Leatherback Sea Turtles
Dermochelys Blainville, 1816 - Leatherback Sea Turtles
D. coriacea (Vandelli, 1761) - Leatherback Sea Turtle
  
Emydidae Gray, 1825 - Box and Basking Turtles
Chrysemys Gray, 1844 - Painted Turtles
C. picta (Schneider, 1783) - Painted Turtle
Emydoidea Gray, 1870 - Blanding’s Turtles
Trachemys Agassiz, 1857 - Sliders
T. scripta (Thunberg in Schoepff, 1792) - Pond Slider
  
Kinosternidae Agassiz, 1857 - Mud and Musk Turtles
Kinosternon Spix, 1824 - American Mud Turtles
K. sonoriense LeConte, 1854 - Sonora Mud Turtle
  
Testudinidae Gray, 1825 - Tortoises
Gopherus Rafinesque, 1832 - Gopher Tortoises
G. agassizii (Cooper, 1861) - Mohave Desert Tortoise
  
Trionychidae Bell, 1828 - Softshells
Apalone Rafinesque, 1832 - North American Softshells
A. spinifera (LeSueur, 1827) - Spiny Softshell
  
Squamata (part) Oppel, 1811 - Lizards
Anguidae Gray, 1825 - Glass Lizards and Alligator Lizards
Elgaria Gray, 1838 - Western Alligator Lizards
E. coerulea (Wiegmann, 1828) - Northern Alligator Lizard
E. multicarinata (Blainville, 1835) - Southern Alligator Lizard
E. panamintina (Stebbins, 1958) - Panamint Alligator Lizard
  
Anniellidae Boulenger 1885 - Legless lizards
Anniella Gray, 1852 - North American Legless Lizards
A. pulchra Gray, 1852 - Northern Legless Lizard
  
Crotaphytidae Smith & Brodie, 1982 - Collared and Leopard Lizards
Crotaphytus Holbrook, 1842 - Collared Lizards
C. bicinctores Smith & Tanner, 1972 - Great Basin Collared Lizard
C. vestigium Smith & Tanner, 1972 - Baja California Collared Lizard
Gambelia Baird 1859 “1858” - Leopard Lizards
G. copeii (Yarrow, 1882) - Cope's Leopard Lizard
G. sila (Stejneger, 1890) - Blunt-nosed Leopard Lizard
G. wislizenii (Baird & Girard, 1852) - Long-nosed Leopard Lizard
  
Eublepharidae Boulenger, 1883 - Eyelid Geckos
Coleonyx Gray, 1845 - Banded Geckos
C. switaki (Murphy, 1974) - Switak’s Banded Gecko
C. variegatus (Baird, 1859 “1858”) - Western Banded Gecko
  
Helodermatidae Gray, 1837 - Gila Monsters
Heloderma Wiegmann, 1829 - Gila Monsters and Beaded Lizards
H. suspectum Cope, 1869 - Gila Monster
  
Iguanidaeclick Oppel, 1811 - Iguanas
Dipsosaurus Hallowell, 1854 - Desert Iguanas
D. dorsalis (Baird & Girard, 1852) - Desert Iguana
Sauromalus Dumeril, 1856 - Chuckwallas
S. ater Duméril, 1856 - Common Chuckwalla
  
Phrynosomatidae Fitzinger, 1843 - Spiny Lizards
Callisaurus Blainville, 1835 - Zebratail Lizards
C. draconoides Blainville, 1835 - Zebra-tailed Lizard
Petrosaurus Boulenger, 1885 - Banded Rock Lizards
P. mearnsi (Stejneger, 1894) - Mearns’ Rock Lizard
Phrynosoma Wiegmann, 1828 - Horned Lizards
P. (Anota) blainvillii Gray, 1839 - Blainville’s Horned Lizard
P. (Anota) mcallii (Hallowell, 1852) - Flat-tailed Horned Lizard
P. (Doliosaurus) platyrhinos Girard, 1852 - Desert Horned Lizard
P. (Tapaja) douglasii (Bell, 1828) - Pygmy Short-horned Lizard
Sceloporus Wiegmann, 1828 - Spiny Lizards
S. graciosus Baird & Girard, 1852 - Common Sagebrush Lizard
S. magister Hallowell, 1854 - Desert Spiny Lizard
S. occidentalis Baird & Girard, 1852 - Western Fence Lizard
S. orcutti Stejneger, 1893 - Granite Spiny Lizard
Uma Baird, 1858 - Fringe-toed Lizards
U. inornata Cope, 1895 - Coachella Fringe-toed Lizard
U. notata Baird, 1859 “1858” - Colorado Desert Fringe-toed Lizard
U. scoparia Cope, 1894 - Mohave Fringe-toed Lizard
Urosaurus Hallowell, 1854 - Tree & Brush Lizards
U. graciosus Hallowell, 1854 - Long-tailed Brush Lizard
U. g. graciosus Hallowell, 1854 - Western Long-tailed Brush Lizard
U. g. shannoni Lowe, 1955 - Arizona Long-tailed Brush Lizard
Uta Baird & Girard, 1852 - Side-blotched Lizards
U. stansburiana Baird and Girard in Stansbury 1852 - Common Side-blotched Lizard
  
Phyllodactylidae Gamble, Bauer, Greenbaum, & Jackman 2008 - Leaf-toed Geckos
Phyllodactylus Gray, 1828 - Leaf-toed Geckos
P. nocticolus Dixon, 1964 - Peninsula Leaf-toed Gecko
  
Scincidae Gray, 1825 - Skinks
Plestiodon Dumeril & Bibron 1839 - Toothy Skinks
P. gilberti (Van Denburgh, 1896) - Gilbert's Skink
P. skiltonianus Baird & Girard, 1852 - Western Skink
  
Teiidae Gray, 1827 - Whiptails, Racerunners & Ameivas
Xantusiidae Baird, 1858 - Night Lizards
Xantusia Baird, 1858 - Night Lizards
X. gracilis Grismer & Galvan, 1986 - Sandstone Night Lizard
X. henshawi Stejneger, 1893 - Granite Night Lizard
X. riversiana Cope, 1883 - Island Night Lizard
X. sierrae Bezy, 1967 - Sierra Night Lizard
X. vigilis Baird, 1859 “1858” - Desert Night Lizard
X. wigginsi Savage, 1952 - Wiggins' Night Lizard
  
Squamata (part) Oppel, 1811 - Snakes
Boidae Gray, 1842 - Boas
Charina Gray, 1849 - Rubber Boas
C. bottae (Blainville, 1835) - Northern Rubber Boa
C. umbratica Klauber, 1943 - Southern Rubber Boa
Lichanura Cope, 1861 - Rosy Boas
L. trivirgata (Cope, 1861) - Rosy Boa
  
Colubridae Oppel, 1811 - Harmless Egg-Laying Snakes
Arizona Kennicott, 1859 - Glossy Snakes
Bogertophis Dowling & Price, 1988 - Desert Ratsnakes
B. rosaliae (Mocquard, 1899) - Baja California Ratsnake
Chionactis Cope, 1860 - Shovel-nosed Snakes
C. occipitalis (Hallowell, 1854) - Western Shovel-nosed Snake
Coluber Linnaeus, 1758 - North American Racers, Coachwhips, and Whipsnakes
C. flagellum (Shaw, 1802) - Coachwhip
C. lateralis (Hallowell, 1853) - Striped Racer
C. taeniatus (Hallowell, 1852) - Striped Whipsnake
Lampropeltis Fitzinger, 1843 - Kingsnakes
L. getula (Linnaeus, 1766) - Eastern Kingsnake
L. zonata (Blainville, 1835) - California Mountain Kingsnake
Phyllorhynchus Stejneger, 1890 - Leaf-nosed Snakes
P. decurtatus (Cope, 1868) - Spotted Leaf-nosed Snake
Pituophis Holbrook, 1842 - Bullsnakes, Pinesnakes, and Gophersnakes
P. catenifer (Blainville, 1835) - Gophersnake
Rhinocheilus Baird & Girard, 1853 - Long-nosed Snakes
R. lecontei Baird & Girard, 1853 - Long-nosed Snake
Salvadora Baird & Girard, 1853 - Patch-nosed Snakes
S. hexalepis (Cope, 1866) - Western Patch-nosed Snake
Sonora Baird & Girard, 1853 - North American Groundsnakes
S. semiannulata Baird & Girard, 1853 - Western Groundsnake
Tantilla Baird & Girard, 1853 - Black-headed, Crowned, and Flat-headed Snakes
T. hobartsmithi Taylor, 1937 - Smith’s Black-headed Snake
T. planiceps (Blainville, 1835) - Western Black-headed Snake
Trimorphodon Cope, 1861 - Lyresnakes
T. lambda Cope, 1886 - Sonoran Lyresnake
  
Crotalidae Oppel, 1811 - Pitvipers
Crotalus Linnaeus, 1758 - Rattlesnakes
C. atrox Baird & Girard, 1853 - Western Diamond-backed Rattlesnake
C. cerastes Hallowell, 1854 - Sidewinder
C. ruber Cope, 1892 - Red Diamond Rattlesnake
C. scutulatus (Kennicott, 1861) - Mohave Rattlesnake
C. stephensi Klauber, 1930 - Panamint Rattlesnake
  
Dipsadidae Bonaparte, 1838 - Rear-Fanged Snakes
Contia Baird & Girard, 1853 - Sharp-tailed Snakes
C. longicauda Feldman & Hoyer, 2010 - Forest Sharp-tailed Snake
C. tenuis (Baird & Girard, 1852) - Common Sharp-tailed Snake
Diadophis Baird & Girard, 1853 - Ring-necked Snakes
D. punctatus (Linnaeus, 1766) - Ring-necked Snake
Hypsiglena Cope, 1860 - North American Nightsnakes
H. chlorophaea Cope, 1860 - Desert Nightsnake
H. ochrorhyncha Cope, 1860 - Coast Nightsnake
  
Hydrophiidae Fitzinger, 1843 - Sea Snakes & Allies
Pelamis Daudin, 1803 - Yellow-bellied Seasnakes
P. platura (Linnaeus, 1766) - Yellow-bellied Seasnake
  
Leptotyphlopidae Stejneger, 1891 - Threadsnakes
Rena Baird & Girard, 1853 - Threadsnakes
R. humilis Baird & Girard, 1853 - Western Threadsnake
  
Natricidae Bonaparte, 1838 - Harmless Live-Bearing Snakes
Nerodia Baird & Girard, 1853 - North American Watersnakes
N. fasciata (Linnaeus, 1766) - Southern Watersnake
N. sipedon (Linnaeus, 1758) - Common Watersnake
Thamnophis Fitzinger, 1843 - North American Gartersnakes
T. atratus (Kennicott, 1860) - Aquatic Gartersnake
T. couchii (Kennicott, 1859) - Sierra Gartersnake
T. elegans (Baird & Girard, 1853) - Terrestrial Gartersnake
T. gigas Fitch, 1940 - Giant Gartersnake
T. hammondii (Kennicott, 1860) - Two-striped Gartersnake
T. marcianus (Baird & Girard, 1853) - Checkered Gartersnake
T. ordinoides (Baird & Girard, 1852) - Northwestern Gartersnake
T. sirtalis (Linnaeus, 1758) - Common Gartersnake
  


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